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  • Preanalytical variables affecting the integrity of human biospecimens in biobanking. C. Ellervik. Clinical Chemistry, 2015.
  • Preanalytical quality improvement. In pursuit of harmony, on behalf of EFLM working group for preanalytical phase. G. Lippi, et al. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 2015.
  • Preanalytical variability and quality of diagnostic testing. Looking at the moon and gazing beyond the finger. G. Lippi et al. NZ Journal of Med Lab Science, 2015.
  • The quality of diagnostic testing may be impaired during shipment of lithium heparin gel tubes.  G. Da Rin. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 2014.
  • Preanalytical errors: their impact and how to minimize them.  N. Kaushik, S. Green. Medical Laboratory Observer, 2014.
  • Metrics for identifying errors related to preanalytical sample handling. Kittanakom S, Kavsak PA. Clinical Biochemistry, 2014.
  • Study of variables affecting critical value notification in a laboratory catering to a tertiary care hospital.  Agarwal R. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 2013.
  • Is a specific order of tube draw required during blood collection by venipuncture?  Salvagno G, et al. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 2013.
  • System-related factors contributing to diagnostic errors. Thammasitboon S, et al. Current Problems in Pediatric Adolescent Healthcare; 2013.
  • Frequency of errors in clinical laboratory practice. Sadiq F, et al. Iranian Journal of Pathology; 2013.
  • Quality indicators to detect preanalytical errors in laboratory testing Plebani M, et al. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2013.
  • Preanalytical quality improvement: in quality we trust. Lippi G et al. Clin Chem Lab Med 2013; 51(1): 229-241.
  • Effectiveness of barcoding for reducing patient specimen and laboratory testing identification errors. Snyder S et al. Clinical Biochemistry 2012.
  • Effects of sample transportation on commonly requested laboratory testing tests. Zaninotto M, Tasinato A, Padoan A, Vecchiato G, Pinato A, Sciacovelli L & Plebani M. Clin Chem Lab Med 2012; 50(10): 1755-1760.
  • Effects of vigorous mixing of blood vacuum tubes on laboratory test results. Lima-Oliveira G, Lippi G, Salvagno G et al. Clinical Biochemistry 2012.
  • Effectiveness of practices to reduce blood culture contamination: a laboratory medicine best practices systematic review and meta-analysis. Snyder S, Favoretto A et al. Clinical Biochemistry 2012.
  • International reference laboratories. Menon P. Clinical Laboratory Medicine 2012.
  • Errors in specimen processing and the potential misdiagnosis of acute renal failure in a 12-year old girl. Lazzari M. Laboratory Medicine 2012; 43(4): 113-115.
  • Identifying factors to minimize phlebotomy-inducted blood loss in the pediatric intensive care unit. Valentine S & Bateman S. Pediatric Critical Care 2012; 13(1): 22-27.
  • Blood sample processing: Clinical perspectives on recent developments in technology and laboratory operations. Armstrong M. Laboratory Medicine 2012; 43(1): 7-10.
  • Exploring the initial steps of the testing process: frequency and nature of preanalytical errors. Carraro P, Zago T & Plebani M. Clinical Chemistry 2012; 58(3): 638-642.
  • An integrated system for monitoring the quality of sample transportation. Zaninotto M, Tasinato A, Padan A, Vecchiato G, Pinato A, Sciacovetti L & Plebani M. Clinical Biochemistry 2012.
  • Managing the pre- and post-analytical phases of the total testing process. Hawkins R. Annals of Laboratory Medicine 2012; 5-16.
  • Analysis of laboratory sample rejections in the pre-analytical stage at an oncology center. Bhat V, Tiwari P, Chavan P & Kelkar R. Clinica Chimica Acta 2012.
  • Analysis of factors influencing the generation of unqualified clinical samples and measures t oprevent this generation. Lai X, Yang P, Zhang Y, Cao J & Zhang L. Annals of Laboratory Medicine 2012; 216-219.
  • Preanalytical errors and their impact on tests in clinical laboratory practice. Naz S, Mumtaz A & Sadaruddin. Patiskan Journal of Medical Research 2012; 51(1).
  • Clinical consequences of specimen rejection. CAP, Q-Probes 2011.
  • Laboratory driven Lean Sigma to prove critical to hospitals' future success under new healthcare reform law. Maul P. Medical Laboratory Observer 2011; 16-17.
  • Reducing neonatal pain during routine heel lance procedures. Morrow C et al. American Journal of Maternal Nursing 2010; 35(6): 346-354).
  • Identification of the types of preanalytical errors in the clinical chemistry laboratory. Chawla R, Goswami B, Tayal D & Mallika V. Laboratory Medicine 2010; 41(2): 89-92.
  • Pre-Analytical variables and laboratory total error. Rieppi C. Laboratory Management Magazine 2009.
  • Stabilization of glucose in blood samples: Why it matters. Bruns DE & Knowler WC. Clinical Chemistry 2009; 55(5): 850-852.
  • Preanalytical variables in measurement of free (ionized) calcium in lithium heparin-containing blood collection tubes. Haverstick DM, Brill LB, Scott MG & Bruns DE. Clinical Chimica Acta 2009; 403: 102-104.
  • The unbearable lightness of diagnostic testing: time to contain inappropriate test ordering. Schattner A. Postrgrad Med J 2008; 84: 618-621.
  • A discard volume of twice the deadspace ensures clinically accurate arterial blood gases and electrolytes and prevents unnecessary blood loss. Rickard CM, Couchman BA, Schmidt SJ, Dank A & Purdie DM. Crit Care Med 2003; 31(6): 1654-1658.
  • 'The Importance of Quality in the Preanalytical Phase'. Presentation given at the WorldLab congress in September 2008.

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  • Tourniquet application time during phlebotomy and the influence on clinical chemistry testing; is it negligible? Serdar MA, Kenar L, Hasimi A, Kocu L, Türkmen YH, Kurt I, Akman S & Erbil MK. Turk J Biochem 2008; 33(3): 85-88.
  • Specimen discrepancies in a clinical setting. Lapchak J. Lab Medicine 2008; 39(7): 395-400.
  • Preanalytical quality control program - an overview of results (2001 - 2005 summary). Alsina MJ, Alvarez V, Barba N, Bullich S, Cortés M, Escoda I & Martínez-Brú C. Clin Chem Lab Med 2008; 46(6): 849-854.
  • Root cause analysis of specimen misidentification in surgical pathology accession and grossing. Dimenstein IB. Lab Medicine 2008; 39(8): 497-502.
  • Reducing errors in the clinical laboratory: A lean production system approach. Novis DA. Lab Medicine 2008; 39(9): 521-529.
  • Quality improvement in laboratory medicine: Extra-analytical issues. Lippi G, Fostini R & Guidi GC. Clin Lab Med 2008; 28: 285-294.
  • Preanalytical effects of pneumatic tube transport on routine haematology, coagulation parameters, platelet function and global coagulation. Wallin O, Söderberg J, Grankvist K, Jonsson PA & Hultdin J. Clin Chem Lab Med 2008; 46(10): 1443-1449.
  • Frequency and type of preanalytical errors in a laboratory medicine department in India. Rattan A & Lippi G. Clin Chem Lab Med 2008; 46(11): 1657-1659.
  • Causes, consequences, detection, and prevention of identification errors in laboratory diagnostics. Lippi G, Blanckaert N, Bonini P, Green S, Kitchen S, Palicka V, Vassault AJ, Mattiuzzi C & Plebani M. Clin Chem Lab Med 2009; 47(2): 143-153.
  • Preanalytical errors in primary healthcare: a questionnaire study of information search procedures, test request management and test tube labelling. Söderberg J, Brulin C, Grankvist K & Wallin O. Clin Chem Lab Med 2009; 47(2): 195-201.
  • Anomalous flotation of separator gel: Density or Viscosity? Fatás M, Franquelo P & Franquelo R. Clinical Chemistry 2008; 54(4): 771-772.
  • Preanalytical venous blood sampling practices demand improvement. A survey of test-request management, test-tube labelling and information search procedures. Wallin O, Söderberg J, Van Guelpen B, Stenlund H, Grankvist K & Brulin C. Clinica Chimica Acta 2008; 391: 91-97.
  • Influence of blood specimen collection method on various preanalytical sample quality indicators. Ashavaid TF, Dandekar SP, Keny B & Bhambhwani VR. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 2008; 23(2): 144-149.
  • The development of a system for the reporting, classification and grading of quality failures in the clinical biochemistry laboratory. O'Kane M, Lynch PLM & McGowan N. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry 2008; 45: 129-134.
  • Is suboptimal phlebotomy technique impacting on potassium results for primary care? Bailey IR & Thurlow VR. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry 2008; 45: 266-269.
  • Quality improvement to decrease specimen mislabeling in transfusion medicine. Quillen K & Murphy K. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2006; 130(8): 1196-8.
  • Errors in clinical laboratories or errors in laboratory medicine? Plebani M. Clin Chem Lab Med 2006; 44(6): 750-759.
  • Preanalytic indicators of laboratory performances and quality improvement of laboratory testing. Lippi G & Guidi GC. Clin Lab 2006; 52: 457-462.
  • Patient safety in the clinical laboratory. A longitudinal analysis of specimen identification errors. Wagar EA, Tamashiro L, Yasin B, Hilborne L & Bruckner DA. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2006; 130: 1662-1668.
  • Blood collection procedures in hematology: knowledge and practice among laboratory personnel. Chaturvedi S, Suri V, Pant I & Rusia U. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2006; 49(3): 381-384.
  • Medical errors: impact on clinical laboratories and other critical areas. Kalra J. Clinical Biochemistry 2004; 37: 1052-1062.
  • Patient safety and the preanalytical phase of testing. Garon JE. Clin Leadersh Manag Rev 2004; 18(6): 322-7.
  • Classifying laboratory incident reports to identify problems that jeopardize patient safety. Astion ML, Shojania KG, Hamill TR, Kim S & NG VL. Am J Clin Pathol 2003; 120: 18-26.
  • Outpatient phlebotomy success and reasons for specimen rejection. Dale JC, Novis DA. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2002; 126: 416-419.
  • To err is human: Building a safer health system. Poillon F. Institute of Medicine 1999; 8 pages.
  • Stability of heparin blood samples during transport based on defined pre-analytical quality goals. Jensen EA, Stahl M, Brandslund I & Grinsted. Clin Chem Lab Med 2008; 46(2): 225-234.
  • Preanalytical influences in clinical proteomic studies: Raising awareness of fundamental issues in sample banking. Banks RE. Clinical Chemistry 2008; 54(1): 6-7.
  • The effect of freezing, thawing, and short- and long-term storage on serum thyrotropin, thyroid hormones, and thyroid autoantibodies: Implications for analyzing samples stored in serum banks. Letter to the editor. Männistö T, Surcel HM, Bloigu A, Ruokonen A, Hartikkainen AL, Järvelin MR, Pouta A, Vääräsmäki M & Suvanto-Luukkonen E. Clinical Chemistry 2007; 53(11): 1986-1987.
  • Effect of sample aliquot size on the limit of detection and reproducibility of clinical assays. Chen G, Kobayashi L & Nazarenko I. Clinical Chemistry 2007; 53(11): 1962-1965.
  • Transferability of laboratory data and standardization of preanalytical variables. Lippi G & Guidi GC. Clin Chem Lab Med 2007; 45(9): A143-A162. Abstracts: 39th Annual Congress of SIBioC 2007, Rimini, Italy, Oct 2-5, 2007.
  • Errors in a Stat Laboratory: Types and frequencies 10 years later. Carraro P & Plebani M. Clinical Chemistry 2007; 53(7): 1338-1342.
  • Quality indicators and specifications for key processes in clinical laboratories: a preliminary experience. Alsina Kirchner MJ, Alvarez Funes V, Biosca Adzet C, Doménech Clar MV, Ibarz Escuer M, Minchinela Girona J, Pastor Barellas RM, Perich Alsina C, Ricós Aguilá C, Trujillo Isern G & Vilanova Navarro C. Clin Chem Lab Med 2007; 45(5): 672-677.
  • Phlebotomists performance during blood sample collection in public and private clinical laboratories in Sao Paulo City, Brazil. Lima-Oliveira GS, Picheth G, Sumita NM & Scartezini M. AACC 2007 Annual Meeting; Tracking No. 07-A-420-AACC.
  • The effects of tourniquet application vs. subcutaneous tissue transilluminator device in blood sample collection on hematological parameters. Lima-Oliveira GS, Picheth G, Assan NK, Ferreira CES, Mangueira CLP, Sumita NM & Scartezini M. Journal Compilation 2007, Int. Inl. Lab. Hem. 2007; 29(suppl. 1): 1-45.
  • Errors in laboratory medicine and patient safety: the road ahead. Plebani M. Clin Chem Lab Med 2007; 45(6): 700-707.
  • Risk management in the preanalytical phase of laboratory testing. Lippi G, Guidi GC. Clin Chem Lab Med 2007; 45(6): 720-27.
  • Recommendations for detection and management of unsuitable samples in clinical laboratories. Lippi G, Banfi G, Buttarello M, Ceriotti F, Daves M, Dolci A, Caputo M, Giavarina D, Montagnana M, Miconi V, Milanesi B, Mosca A, Morandini M, Salvagno GL. Clin Chem Lab Med 2007; 45(6): 728-36.
  • Process and risk analysis to reduce errors in clinical laboratories. Signori C, Ceriotti F, Sanna A, Plebani M, Messeri G, Ottomano C, Di Serio F, Bonini P. Clin Chem Lab Med 2007; 45(6): 742-48.
  • One hundred years of laboratory testing and patient safety. Lippi G, Guidi GC, Plebani M. Clin Chem Lab Med 2007; 45(6): 797-98.
  • How can we make laboratory testing safer? Boone DJ. Clin Chem Lab Med 2007; 45(6): 708-11.
  • "Pre-pre" and "post-post" analytical error: high-indicent patient safety hazards involving the clinical laboratory. Laposata M, Dighe A. Clin Chem Lab Med 2007; 45(6): 712-19.
  • Reduction of multi-dimensional laboratory data to a two-dimensional plot: a novel technique for the identification of laboratory error. Kazmierczak SC, Leen TK, Erdogmus D, Carreira-Perpinan MA. Clin Chem Lab Med 2007; 45(6): 749-52.
  • Does external evaluation of laboratories improve patient safety? Noble MA. Clin Chem 2007; 45(6): 753-55.
  • The role of in vitro diagnostic companies in reducing laboratory error. Stankovic AK, Romeo P. Clin Chem Lab Med 2007; 45(6): 781-88.
  • Application of the Six Sigma concept in clinical laboratories: a review. Gras JM, Philippe M. Clin Chem Lab Med 2007; 45(6): 789-96.
  • Risk management in laboratory medicine: quality assurance programs and professional competence. Sciacovelli L, Secchiero S, Zardo L, D'Osualdo A, Plebani M. Clin Chem Lab Med 2007; 45(6): 756-65.
  • Improving Patient Outcomes Through Excellence in the Preanalytical Phase. Bonini P, Blanckaert N, Lippi G. Euromedlab Workshop 2007.

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  • To scoop or not to scoop. Williams D. MLO Med Lab Obs. 2007; 39(3):22-24.
  • Evaluation of blood collection tubes. Polack B. Thromb Res 2007; 119(2): 133-4.
  • National survey on the pre-analytical variability in a representative cohort of Italian laboratories. Lippi G, Montagnana M, Giavarina D; Italian Society of Clinical Biochemistry and Clinical Molecular Biology; Italian Society of Laboratory Medicine; Italian Committee for Standardisation of Laboratory and Haematological Methods. Clin Chem Lab Med 2006; 44(12): 1491-94.
  • Laboratory network of excellence: enhancing patient safety and service effectiveness. Plebani M, Ceriotti F, Messeri G, Ottomano C, Pansini N & Bonini P. Clin Chem Lab Med 2006; 44(2): 150-160.
  • Preanalytical Error Tracking in a Laboratory Medicine Department: Results of a 1-Year Experience. Giuseppe Lippi, Antonella Bassi, Giorgio Brocco,  Martina Montagnana, Gian Luca Salvagno and Gian Cesare Guidi. Clinical Chemistry 2006; 52.
  • National survey on the pre-analytical variability in a representative cohort of Italian laboratories. Lippi G, Montagnana M, Giavarina D, Italian Society of Clinical Biochemistry and Clinical Molecular Biology; Italian Society of Laboratory Medicine; Italian Committee for Standardisation of Laboratory and Haematological Methods. Clin Chem Lab Med 2006; 44(12): 1491-4.
  • Preanalytical Variability: The Dark Side of the Moon in Laboratory Testing. G Lippi, GC Guidi, C Mattiuzzi and M Plebani. Clin Chem Lab Med 2006; 44(4): 358-65.
  • The Clinical Chemistry Laboratory: Current Status, Problems and Diagnostic Prospects. E Schleicher. Anal Bioanal Chem 2006; 384(1): 124-31.
  • The other side of the needle: a patient’s perspective. Haack LA, Meier JS, Gluth J, Selvaggi SM. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34(4): 303-6.
  • Preanalytic indicators of laboratory performances and quality improvement of laboratory testing. Lippi G, Guidi GC. Clin Lab 2006; 52(9-10): 457-62.
  • The skilled phlebotomist. Lippi G, Salvagno GL, Montagnana M, Guidi GC. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2006; 130(9): 1260-1.
  • Phlebotomy issues and quality improvement in results of laboratory testing. Lippi G, Salvagno GL, Montagnana M, Franchini M, Guidi GC. Clin Lab. 2006; 52(5-6): 217-30. 
  • Arterial blood collection - part 1 of 2. Blonshine SB. www.bloodgas.org 2005; 2 pages.
  • Arterial blood collection - part 2 of 2. Blonshine SB. www.bloodgas.org 2005; 2 pages.
  • Preanalytical issues related to blood sample mixing. Narayanan S. www.bloodgas.org 2005; 3 pages.
  • Errors in laboratory medicine. Practical lessons to improve patient safety. Howanitz P. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2005; 129: 1252-1261.
  • Preanalytical variability in laboratory testing: influence of the blood drawing technique. Lippi G, Salvagno GL, Brocco G, Guidi GC. Clin Chem Lab Med 2005: 43(3): 319-25.
  • Suggestions for an appropriate methodological approach for the validation of an evacuated blood collection tube made in plastic material including the effect of age. Foucher K, Toulon P, Shved JF, Polack B. Thromb Haemost. 2004; 91(4):845-7.
  • Influence of blood collection techniques on platelet function. Mani H, Kirchmayr K, Kläffling C, Schindewolf M, Luxembourg B, Linnemann B & Lindhoff-Last E. Platelets 2004; 15(5): 315-8.
  • NCCLS simplifies the order of draw: a brief history. Ernst DJ & Calam R. Medical Laboratory Observer 2004; 6 pages.
  • Useful tips to avoid preanalytical errors in blood gas testing: Metabolites. Wannecke G. www.bloodgas.org 2004; 6 pages.
  • Useful tips to avoid preanalytical errors in blood gas testing: Neonatal Total Bilirubin. Wannecke G. www.bloodgas.org 2004; 6 pages. 
  • Useful tips to avoid preanalytical errors in blood gas testing: Electrolytes. Wannecke G. www.bloodgas.org 2003; 9 pages.
  • Specimen collection volumes for laboratory tests. A college of American Pathologists study of 140 laboratories. Dale J & Ruby SG. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2003; 127(91): 701-703.
  • Blood loss from laboratory tests. Wisser D, Ackern KV, Knoll E, Wisser H & Bertsch T. Clinical Chemistry 2003; 49(10): 1651-1655.
  • Conveying the importance of the preanalytical phase. Young DS. Clin Chem Lab Med 2003; 41(7): 884-887.
  • A review of needle-protective devices to prevent sharps injuries. Trim JC. Bristish Journal of Nursing 2003; 12(8): 470-474.
  • Classifying laboratory incident reports to identify problems that jeopardize patient safety. Michael L Astion, Kaveh G Shojania, Tim R Hamill, Sara Kim & Valerie L Ng. Am J Clin Pathol 2003; 120: 18-26.
  • The effect of blood drawing techniques and equipment on the hemolysis of ED laboratory blood samples. Grant MS. Journal of Emergency Nursing 2003; 29(2): 116-121.
  • Errors in Laboratory Medicine. Pierangelo Bonini, Mario Plebani, Ferruccio Ceriotti and Francesca Rubboli. Clinical Chemistry 2002; 48(5): 691-698.
  • Can peripheral venous blood gases replace arterial blood gases in emergency department patients? Rang LCF, Murray HE, Wells GA & MacGougan CK. Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine 2002; 4(1): 7-15.
  • The Preanalytic Phase. An Important Component of Laboratory Medicine. S Narayanan. Am J Clin Pathol 2000; 113(3): 429-52.
  • Pre-analytical variation of laboratory variables. Watine J, Miedouge M. Clin Chem Lab Med 2000; 38(3): 263.
  • Phlebotomy overdraw in the neonatal intensive care nursery. Lin JC, Strauss RG, Kulhavy JC, Johnson KJ, Zimmerman MB, Cress GA, Connolly NW & Widness JA. Pedriatrics 2000; 106(2): E19.
  • Plastic versus siliconized glass tubes: Evaluation in current laboratory practice. Biron-Andreani C, Mallol C, Séguret F & Schved JF. Thromb Haemost 2000; 83(5): 800-1.
  • Effect of serum volume and time of exposure to gel barrier tubes on results for progesterone by Roche Diagnostics Elecsys 2010. Ferry JD. Clinical Chemistry 1999; 45(9): 1574-1575.
  • The order of draw of blood specimens into additive containing tubes does not affect potassium and calcium measurements. Majid A, Heamey DC & Padmanabhan N. J Clin Pathol 1996; 49: 1019-1020.
  • Storage of serum or whole blood samples? Effects of time and temperature on 22 serum analytes. Heins M, Heil W & Withold W. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1995; 33(4): 231-238.
  • Guidelines for the identification and distribution of patient samples in the medical laboratory. Recommendation of the European Committe for Clinical Laboratory Standards (ECCLS) and approved document of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFFC). P. A. Bonini, N. Alpert, M. Luzzana and R. Rubin. Journal of Automatic Chemistry 1994; 16(1): 25-32.
  • A source of error in blood alcohol analysis. Letter to the editor. Taberner PV. Alcohol & Alcoholism 1989; 24(5): 489-490.
  • Reducing adult phlebotomy blood loss with the use of pediatric-sized blood collection tubes. Smoller BR, Kruskall MS & Horowitz GL. Am J Clin Pathol 1989; 91(6): 701-703.
  • Effective measures for reducing blood loss from diagnostic laboratory tests in intensive care unit patients. Foulke GE, Harlow DJ. Crit Care Med 1989; 17(11): 1143-5.
  • Minimum volume of discard for valid blood sampling from indwelling arterial cannulae. Clapham MCC, Willis N & Mapleson WW. Br J Anaesth. 1987; 59: 232-235.
  • Stability of serum and blood constituents during mail transport. Berg B, Estborn B & Tryding N. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1981; 41(5): 425-430.



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